Journal of Biomedicine and Biosensors

Review Article

Update on Clostridum Difficile in Nigeria; Clinical Diagnosis, Laboratory Diagnosis

  • By Christopher Ifunanya Chukwu, Rhoda Nwalozie, Brenda Anyakwe Nnokam, RoseMary Kaiso Esiere - 30 Dec 2023
  • Journal of Biomedicine and Biosensors, Volume: 3, Issue: 4, Pages: 29 - 42
  • https://doi.org/10.58613/jbb344
  • Received: October 26, 2023; Accepted: December 18, 2023; Published: December 31, 2023

Abstract

Clostridium difficile, a notorious nosocomial pathogen, poses a significant healthcare challenge in Nigeria. C. difficile infections in Nigeria exhibit symptoms akin to global trends, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. Severe cases with pseudomembranous colitis are not uncommon. Local nuances in clinical presentation may exist, warranting further investigation. Nigerian healthcare professionals face difficulties in promptly diagnosing C. difficile infections due to nonspecific symptoms, limited awareness, and resource constraints. Delayed diagnosis can lead to increased disease severity and transmission. Existing diagnostic guidelines and algorithms, often derived from international recommendations, require adaptation to suit the Nigerian healthcare landscape. Standardized and context-specific protocols are needed for efficient diagnosis. Various laboratory methods, such as culture, PCR, and toxin assays, are employed for C. difficile diagnosis. Accessibility to these tests varies across healthcare facilities in Nigeria, with disparities in equipment, reagents, and skilled personnel. Recent advancements in laboratory diagnostics, including molecular techniques and point-of-care tests, offer promise in enhancing C. difficile detection. However, their implementation and affordability in Nigeria require careful consideration. This review article provides an updated exploration of Clostridium difficile infections in Nigeria, focusing on clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The primary objectives are to elucidate the clinical presentation of C. difficile infections in Nigerian patients, assess the diagnostic challenges faced, and evaluate the existing diagnostic guidelines. Additionally, this review discusses laboratory testing methods, their accessibility, and recent advancements in C. difficile diagnostics within the Nigerian healthcare context.